National Park Management in Indonesia: The Use of Ecosystem Services to Support Its Financial Needs

Ubaidillah Syohih, Motoko Kojima, Bambang Supriyono, Wike Wike


The growing trends in the conservation forest management opens up opportunities for the use of ecosystem services. Indonesia has 54 national parks that can be utilized for generating incomes as well as conserving the biodiversity to eliminate the financial gap of national park management. To support the financial needs of national park management, the Government of Indonesia needs to regulate the potential ecosystem services, improve the service delivery to the stakeholders, and consider new ecosystem services in addition to invite new investors and/or new grants and implement the economic instruments of environment.


national park; ecosystem services; non tax revenue

Full Text:



Bovarnick, Andrew, Jaime Fernandez-Baca, Jose Galindo, and Helen Negret. (2010). Financial Sustainability of Protected Areas in Latin America and the Caribbean: Investment Policy Guidance. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC).

Buckley, Ralf. (2012). Tourism, Conservation and the Aichi Targets. Parks, Vol. 18 (2), pp. 12–19.

Castillo, Gem, Somaly Chan, Wenjun Li, Yanbo Li, H. Luthfi Fatah, Sivannakone Malivarn, Kian Foh Lee, Alexander Anda, Prinyarat Laengcharoen, and Chien Pham Duc. (2016). Improving the Performance of Protected Areas: An Assessment from across Southeast Asia. Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA): Laguna

DJPB. (2017). Keputusan Direktur Jenderal Perbendaharaan Nomor KEP-617/PB/2017 tentang Perubahan atas Keputusan Direktur Jenderal Perbendaharaan Nomor KEP-617/PB/2017 tentang Pemutakhiran Kodefikasi Segmen Akun pada Bagan Akun Standar. DJPB: Jakarta.

DJPPR. (2017). Forum Koordinasi Kebijakan Pembiayaan Proyek SBSN: Pembiayaan Produktif Mendukung APBN Yang Berkualitas. Direktorat Jenderal Pengelolaan Pembiayaan Dan Risiko, Kementerian Keuangan. Retrieved from (in Indonesian) [Accessed on July 02, 2018].

Emerton, Lucy, Joshua Bishop, and Lee Thomas. (2006). Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas: A Global Review of Challenges and Options. In IUCN Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 13. IUCN: Gland.

Engel, Stefanie, Stefano Pagiola, and Sven Wunder. (2008). Designing Payments for Environmental Services in Theory and Practice: An Overview of the Issues. Ecological Economics, Vol. 65 (4), pp. 663–674.

Ervin, Jamison, Sarat Babu Gidda, Rolla Salem, and Jesse Mohr. (2008). The PoWPA—a Review of Global Implementation. Parks Journal, Vol. 17, pp: 4–11.

———. (2014). Forestry Statistics of Indonesia 2013. Kemenhut: Jakarta.

KSDAE. (2016). Laporan Capaian Renja 2015 dan Progres Capaian Renstra 2015-2019 Sampai Tahun 2015 Direktorat Jenderal KSDAE. KSDAE KLHK: Jakarta. (in Indonesian)

———. (2017a). Laporan Capaian Renja 2016 dan Progres Capaian Renstra 2015-2019 Sampai Tahun 2016 Direktorat Jenderal KSDAE. KSDAE KLHK: Jakarta. (in Indonesian)

———. (2017b). Laporan Kinerja Ditjen KSDAE Tahun 2016. KSDAE KLHK: Jakarta. (in Indonesian)

———. (2017c). Pedoman Penilaian Efektivitas Pengelolaan Kawasan Konservasi di Indonesia. KSDAE KLHK: Jakarta. (in Indonesian)

———. (2018). Laporan Capaian Renja Tahun 2017 dan Laporan Capaian Renstra 2015-2019 Direktorat Jenderal KSDAE. KSDAE KLHK: Jakarta. (in Indonesian)

López-Ornat, A., and S. Jiménez-Caballero. (2006). Sustainable Financing Sources for Protected Areas in the Mediterranean. IUCN: Seville.

Menhut. (2014). Peraturan Menteri Kehutanan No. P.37/Menhut-II/2014 tentang Tata Cara Pengenaan, Pemungutan dan Penyetoran Penerimaan Negara Bukan Pajak Bidang Perlindungan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam. Kemenhut: Jakarta. (in Indonesian)

Mulongoy, K. J., Sarat Babu Gidda, Lisa Janishevski., & Annie Cung. (2008). Current Funding Shortfalls and Innovative Funding Mechanisms to Implement the PoWPA- Protected Areas Programme. Parks Journal, Vol. 17, pp. 31–36.

Pabon-Zamora, Luis, Akhmad Fauzi, Abdul Halim, Juan Bezaury-Creel, Eduardo Vega-Lopez, Fernando Leon, Lila Gil, and Vanessa Cartaya. (2008). Protected Áreas in Today’s World: Their Values and Benefits for the Welfare of the Planet., Edition: Technical Series No. 36. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Canada.

Pagiola, Stefano, Agustin Arcenas, and Gunars Platais. (2005). Can Payments for Environmental Services Help Reduce Poverty? An Exploration of the Issues and the Evidence to Date from Latin America. World Development, Vol. 33 (2), pp. 237–253.

PJLHK. (2017). Focus Grup Discussion (FGD) Pemanfaatan Jasa Lingkungan dengan Tema Pemanfaatan Energi Angin dan Panas Matahari di Hutan Konservasi (October 26, 2017). PJLHK KLHK: Bogor. Retrieved from (in Indonesian)

———. (2018). Laporan Kinerja Direktorat Pemanfaatan Jasa Lingkungan Hutan Konservasi Tahun 2017. PJLHK KLHK: Bogor. (in Indonesian)

PORI. (2017). Peraturan Pemerintah No. 46/2017 tentang Instrumen Ekonomi Lingkungan Hidup. Kemenkumham: Jakarta. (in Indonesian)

Prihadi, Nandang, Bambang Suriyono, Marwedhi Nurratyo, Roby Rajani Nurzaini, Rizka Dewi Zuleika, and Ernatia Wati. (2017). Rencana Kerja Direktorat Jenderal Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam dan Ekosistem Tahun 2018. KSDAE KLHK: Jakarta. (in Indonesian)

Rocan. (2018). Rekapitulasi Pelaksanaan Hibah Program / Proyek Kerjasama dengan Dana Hibah Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan sampai dengan Triwulan IV 2017. Biro Perencanaan KLHK: Jakarta. (in Indonesian)

Rylance, Andrew. (2017). Estimating Tourism’s Contribution to Conservation Area Financing in Mozambique. Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 17 (1), pp. 24–33.

Wiratno. (2018). Sepuluh Cara (Baru) Mengelola Kawasan Konservasi di Indonesia: Membangun Learning Organization. KSDAE KLHK: Jakarta (in Indonesian).

Wunder, Sven. (2005). Payments for Environmental Services: Some Nuts and Bolts. CIFOR Occasional Paper, Vol. 42, pp. 3–4.

Wunder, Sven, Stefanie Engel, and Stefano Pagiola. (2008). Taking Stock: A Comparative Analysis of Payments for Environmental Services Programs in Developed and Developing Countries. Ecological Economics, Vol. 65 (4), pp. 834–852.


  • There are currently no refbacks.